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Deprotonative Metalation of Five-Membered Aromatic Heterocycles Using Mixed Lithium−Zinc Species

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posted on 04.01.2008 by Jean-Martial L'Helgoual'c, Anne Seggio, Floris Chevallier, Mitsuhiro Yonehara, Erwann Jeanneau, Masanobu Uchiyama, Florence Mongin
Deprotonation of benzoxazole, benzothiazole, benzo[b]thiophene, benzo[b]furan, N-Boc-protected indole and pyrrole, and N-phenylpyrazole using an in situ mixture of ZnCl2·TMEDA (0.5 equiv) and lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (1.5 equiv) in THF at room temperature is described. The reaction was evidenced by trapping with iodine, regioselectively giving the expected functionalized derivatives in 52−73% yields. A mixture of mono- and disubstituted derivatives was obtained starting from thiazole. Cross-coupling reactions of 2-metalated benzo[b]thiophene and benzo[b]furan with heteroaromatic chlorides proved possible under palladium catalysis. A reaction pathway where the lithium amide and zinc diamide present in solution behave synergically was proposed for the deprotonation reaction, taking account of NMR and DFT studies carried out on the basic mixture.