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DNA-Binding Studies of a Tetraalkyl-Substituted Porphyrin and the Mutually Adaptive Distortion Principle

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posted on 20.10.2014, 00:00 authored by Srijana Ghimire, Phillip E. Fanwick, David R. McMillin
This investigation explores DNA-binding interactions of various forms of an alkyl-substituted cationic porphyrin, H2TC3 (5,10,15,20-tetra­[3-(3′-methylimidazolium-1′-yl)]­porphyrin). The motivating idea is that incorporating alkyl rather than aryl substituents in the meso positions will enhance the prospects for intercalative as well as external binding to DNA hosts. The ligands may also be applicable for photodynamic and/or anticancer therapy. Methods employed include absorbance, circular dichroism, and emission spectroscopies, as well as viscometry and X-ray crystallography. By comparison with the classical H2T4 system, H2TC3 exhibits a higher molar extinction coefficient but is more prone to self-association. Findings of note include that the copper­(II)-containing form Cu­(TC3) is adept at internalizing into single-stranded as well as B-form DNA, regardless of the base composition. Surprisingly, however, external binding of H2TC3 occurs within domains that are rich in adenine–thymine base pairs. The difference in the deformability of H2TC3 versus Cu­(TC3) probably accounts for the reactivity difference. Finally, Zn­(TC3) binds externally, as the metal center remains five-coordinate.