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Comprehensive Synthesis of Amino Acid-Derived Thiazole Peptidomimetic Analogues to Understand the Enigmatic Drug/Substrate-Binding Site of P‑Glycoprotein

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posted on 18.12.2017, 00:00 by Bhargav A. Patel, Biebele Abel, Anna Maria Barbuti, Uday Kiran Velagapudi, Zhe-Sheng Chen, Suresh V. Ambudkar, Tanaji T. Talele
A novel set of 64 analogues based on our lead compound 1 was designed and synthesized with an initial objective of understanding the structural requirements of ligands binding to a highly perplexing substrate-binding site of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and their effect on modulating the ATPase function of the efflux pump. Compound 1, a stimulator of P-gp ATPase activity, was transformed to ATPase inhibitory compounds 39, 53, and 109. The ATPase inhibition by these compounds was predominantly contributed by the presence of a cyclohexyl group in lieu of the 2-aminobenzophenone moiety of 1. The 4,4-difluorocyclohexyl analogues, 53 and 109, inhibited the photolabeling by [125I]-IAAP, with IC50 values of 0.1 and 0.76 μM, respectively. Selected compounds were shown to reverse paclitaxel resistance in HEK293 cells overexpressing P-gp and were selective toward P-gp over CYP3A4. Induced-fit docking highlighted a plausible binding pattern of inhibitory compounds in the putative-binding pocket of P-gp. The current study underscores the stringent requirement by P-gp to bind to chemically similar molecules.