American Chemical Society
es3c06910_si_002.xlsx (147.17 kB)

Comprehensive Assessment of Exposure Pathways for Perfluoroalkyl Ether Carboxylic Acids (PFECAs) in Residents Near a Fluorochemical Industrial Park: The Unanticipated Role of Cereal Consumption

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posted on 2023-11-06, 20:35 authored by Fengfeng Dong, Yitao Pan, Jian Zhang, Jianglin Hu, Yi Luo, Jianhui Tang, Jiayin Dai, Nan Sheng
With the replacement of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with perfluorinated ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), residents living near fluorochemical industrial parks (FIPs) are exposed to various novel PFECAs. Despite expectations of low accumulation, short-chain PFECAs, such as perfluoro-2-methoxyacetic acid (PFMOAA), previously displayed a considerably high body burden, although the main exposure routes and health risks remain uncertain. Here, we explored the distribution of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in diverse environmental media surrounding a FIP in Shandong Province, China. PFECAs were found at elevated concentrations in all tested matrices, including vegetables, cereals, air, and dust. Among residents, 99.3% of the ∑36PFAS exposure, with a 43.9% contribution from PFECAs, was due to gastrointestinal uptake. Dermal and respiratory exposures were negligible at 0.1 and 0.6%, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of PFMOAA reached 114.0 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day, ranking first among all detected PFECAs. Cereals emerged as the dominant contributor to PFMOAA body burden, representing over 80% of the overall EDI. The median EDI of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO–DA) was 17.9 ng/kg bw/day, markedly higher than the USEPA reference doses (3.0 ng/kg bw/day). The absence of established threshold values for other PFECAs constrains a comprehensive risk assessment.