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Complexes of Diiodine with Heteroaromatic N‑Oxides: Effects of Halogen-Bond Acceptors in Halogen Bonding

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posted on 01.08.2019, 15:11 by William Borley, Brandon Watson, Yakov P. Nizhnik, Matthias Zeller, Sergiy V. Rosokha
Halogen bonding (XB) in complexes of diiodine with heteroaromatic N-oxides was examined via a combination of UV–vis spectral and X-ray structural measurements, as well as computational analysis. While all of these associates were formed by analogous I···O bonds, they showed considerable variations of formation constants (5–1500 M–1) and intermolecular I···O bond length (2.3–3.2 Å). In the solid state, both atoms of I2 molecules were involved in XB, and the I···O separations were determined by the electron-donor abilities of N-oxides and the strength of the bonding on the opposite side of the ditopic XB donor. The solution-phase formation constants of 1:1 complexes, K, as well as magnitudes of the calculated interaction energies, ΔE, increased with the shift of the values of the most negative potentials on the surfaces of N-oxides’ oxygen atoms, Vmin, toward more negative values. Yet, the interatomic contacts consistently deviated from the locations of Vmin. Instead, the structures of complexes were well suited for highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital interactions of reactants. The values of K, ΔE, and the intermolecular distances dI···O in the calculated complexes were highly correlated with the charge-transfer interaction energies derived from the natural bond orbital analysis. This indicated that, besides electrostatic, molecular orbital interactions play a substantial role in XB between diiodine and N-oxides. This conclusion was supported by the analysis of the complexes using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules, noncovalent interaction index, and density overlap region indicator, which showed that the covalent character of I···O bonding increases with the rise of interaction energies in the complexes.