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Clickable Methyltetrazine-Indocarbocyanine Lipids: A Multicolor Tool Kit for Efficient Modifications of Cell Membranes

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posted on 03.05.2019 by Hanmant Gaikwad, Guankui Wang, Weston J. Smith, Keisha L. Alexander, Angelo D’Alessandro, Wei Zhang, Enkhtsetseg Purev, Dmitri Simberg
Cell-based therapeutics are one of the most promising and exciting breakthroughs in modern medicine. Modification of the cell surface with ligands, biologics, drugs, and nanoparticles can further enhance the functionality. Previously, we described the synthesis of a dioctadecyl indocarbocyanine Cy3 analog (aminomethyl-DiI) for efficient and stable modification (painting) of mouse erythrocytes with small molecules, enzymes, and biologics. Here, we synthesized a near-infrared aminomethyl dioctadecyl derivative of Cy7 (aminomethyl-DOCy7) and systematically compared it to aminomethyl-DiI as an anchor for the modification of human erythrocytes, Jurkat cells, and primary T cells with immunoglobulin G. To enable copper-free click chemistry modification of cell membranes, we conjugated a methyltetrazine (MTz) group to the amino-indocyanine lipids via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker. DOCy7–PEG3400–MTz showed over 99% modification efficiency of human red blood cells (RBCs) at 25 μM. Reaction of trans-cyclooctene (TCO) modified immunoglobulin G (IgG) with DOCy7–PEG4–MTz-modified RBCs (2-step method) resulted in ∼80,000 IgG molecules per erythrocyte, whereas modification with a preconjugated DOCy7–PEG3400–IgG construct (1-step method) resulted in ∼20,000 IgG molecules per erythrocyte as detected by immuno dot-blot. The number of IgG/RBC was controlled by the concentration of IgG. The incubation of RBCs with DiI–PEG3400–MTz resulted in a similar number of IgG/RBC. Modification of the T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat with IgG resulted in ∼1 × 106 IgG/cell with the 1-step and 2-step methods, and the efficiency was similar for DOCy7 and DiI constructs. Finally, we used DOCy7 and DiI constructs to demonstrate efficient modification of primary CD3+T cells from healthy donors. In conclusion, click indocarbocyanine conjugates represent a novel multicolor chemical biology tool kit for efficient surface modification of different cells types and can be used for potential imaging and drug delivery applications involving engineered cells.

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