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Chlorizidine, a Cytotoxic 5H‑Pyrrolo[2,1‑a]isoindol-5-one-Containing Alkaloid from a Marine Streptomyces sp.

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posted on 19.02.2016, 20:34 by Xavier Alvarez-Mico, Paul R. Jensen, William Fenical, Chambers C. Hughes
Cultivation of an obligate marine Streptomyces strain has provided the cytotoxic natural product chlorizidine A. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the metabolite is composed of a chlorinated 2,3-dihydropyrrolizine ring attached to a chlorinated 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one. The carbon stereocenter in the dihydropyrrolizine is S-configured. Remarkably, the 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one moiety has no precedence in the field of natural products. The presence of this ring system, which was demonstrated to undergo facile nucleophilic substitution reactions at the activated carbonyl group, is essential to the molecule’s cytotoxicity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells.