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Benzo[a]pyrene Diol Epoxide Forms Covalent Adducts with Deoxycytidylic Acid by Alkylation at Both Exocyclic Amino N4 and Ring Imino N-3 Positions

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posted on 19.04.2004, 00:00 by Alan R. Wolfe, Timothy J. Smith, Thomas Meehan
The carcinogen 7r,8t-dihydroxy-9t,10t-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (anti-BPDE) alkylates DNA at dGuo, dAdo, and dCyd. dCyd adducts, formed in small amounts, elute near the more abundant dGuo adducts. We isolated the dCyd adducts formed with dCMP. Each BPDE enantiomer forms three major adducts with dCMP, two cis and one trans. The trans adduct and one of the cis adducts form by alkylation at exocyclic N4, while the second cis adduct is a dUrd adduct formed by alkylation at ring N-3 followed by deamination. Epoxide ring-opening geometries were assigned on the basis of halide and temperature effects on adduct yield, the sign of the major CD band, and benzo ring proton NMR coupling constants. One of each set of cis adducts is fluorescent (FL), and the other is nonfluorescent (NF). The trans and FL cis adducts have fluorescence quantum yields 40−50% of that of the BPDE hydrolysis product. The long wavelength UV maxima of the FL and NF cis adducts are red-shifted 1 and 3 nm relative to the trans adduct. 1H NMR deuterium exchange experiments indicate that in the trans and FL cis adducts N4−H is coupled to C10−H. Adduct formation experiments with methyl-protected Cyd derivatives show that NF cis adducts result from alkylation at N-3. MS results, pKa measurements, and dUrd alkylation experiments indicate that the N-3 dCyd adducts spontaneously deaminate to dUrd adducts. NMR coupling constants show that in the NF cis adduct the C7 and C8 substituents are quasi equatorial and the C9 substituent is quasi axial, unlike in other cis BPDE adducts. 1H NOESY spectra of the (−)-BPDE NF cis adduct reveal that it exists in two conformers. Molecular modeling shows that the conformers result from two low-energy conformations of very similar energies with the pyrimidine in opposite orientations, separated by significant barriers to rotation of the uracil moiety.