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Allylative Approaches to the Synthesis of Complex Guaianolide Sesquiterpenes from Apiaceae and Asteraceae

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posted on 2019-09-05, 22:13 authored by Xirui Hu, Andrew J. Musacchio, Xingyu Shen, Yujia Tao, Thomas J. Maimone
With hundreds of unique members isolated to date, guaianolide lactones represent a particularly prolific class of terpene natural products. Given their extensive documented therapeutic properties and fascinating chemical structures, these metabolites have captivated the synthetic chemistry community for many decades. As a result of divergent biosynthetic pathways, which produce a wide array of stereochemical and oxidative permutations, a unifying synthetic pathway to this broad family of natural products is challenging. Herein we document the evolution of a chiral-pool-based synthetic program aimed at accessing an assortment of guaianolides, particularly those from the plant family Apiaceae as well as Asteraceae, members of which possess distinct chemical substructures and necessitate deviating synthetic platforms. An initial route employing the linear monoterpene linalool generated a lower oxidation state guaianolide but was not compatible with the majority of family members. A double-allylation disconnection using a carvone-derived fragment was then developed to access first an Asteraceae-type guaianolide and then various Apiaceae congeners. Finally, using these findings in conjunction with a tandem polyoxygenation cascade, we developed a pathway to highly oxygenated nortrilobolide. A variety of interesting observations in metal-mediated aldehyde allylation and alkene polyoxygenation are reported and discussed.

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