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A Study of Dinitro-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1′-diol and Derivatives: Design of High-Performance Insensitive Energetic Materials by the Introduction of N‑Oxides

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posted on 03.07.2013, 00:00 by Alexander A. Dippold, Thomas M. Klapötke
In this contribution we report on the synthesis and full structural as well as spectroscopic characterization of 3,3′-dinitro-5,5′-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1′-diol and nitrogen-rich salts thereof. The first synthesis and characterization of an energetic 1-hydroxy-bistriazole in excellent yields and high purity is presented. This simple and straightforward method of N-oxide introduction in triazole compounds using commercially available oxone improves the energetic properties and reveals a straightforward synthetic pathway toward novel energetic 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. X-ray crystallographic measurements were performed and deliver insight into structural characteristics and strong intermolecular interactions. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all compounds at the CBS-4 M level of theory, revealing highly positive heats of formation for all compounds. The energetic properties of all compounds (detonation velocity, pressure, etc.) were calculated using the EXPLO5.05 program, and the ionic derivatives show superior performance in comparison to the corresponding compounds bearing no N-oxide. All substances were characterized in terms of sensitivities (impact, friction, electrostatic) and thermal stabilities, and the ionic derivatives were found to be high thermally stable, insensitive compounds that are exceedingly powerful but safe to handle and prepare.