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A Structural Model of a P450-Ferredoxin Complex from Orientation-Selective Double Electron–Electron Resonance Spectroscopy

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posted on 21.12.2017, 00:00 by Alice M. Bowen, Eachan O. D. Johnson, Francesco Mercuri, Nicola J. Hoskins, Ruihong Qiao, James S. O. McCullagh, Janet E. Lovett, Stephen G. Bell, Weihong Zhou, Christiane R. Timmel, Luet Lok Wong, Jeffrey R. Harmer
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases catalyze the oxidation of chemically inert carbon–hydrogen bonds in diverse endogenous and exogenous organic compounds by atmospheric oxygen. This C–H bond oxy-functionalization activity has huge potential in biotechnological applications. Class I CYPs receive the two electrons required for oxygen activation from NAD­(P)H via a ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin. The interaction of Class I CYPs with their cognate ferredoxin is specific. In order to reconstitute the activity of diverse CYPs, structural characterization of CYP-ferredoxin complexes is necessary, but little structural information is available. Here we report a structural model of such a complex (CYP199A2-HaPux) in frozen solution derived from distance and orientation restraints gathered by the EPR technique of orientation-selective double electron–electron resonance (os-DEER). The long-lived oscillations in the os-DEER spectra were well modeled by a single orientation of the CYP199A2-HaPux complex. The structure is different from the two known Class I CYP-Fdx structures: CYP11A1-Adx and CYP101A1-Pdx. At the protein interface, HaPux residues in the [Fe2S2] cluster-binding loop and the α3 helix and the C-terminus residue interact with CYP199A2 residues in the proximal loop and the C helix. These residue contacts are consistent with biochemical data on CYP199A2-ferredoxin binding and electron transfer. Electron-tunneling calculations indicate an efficient electron-transfer pathway from the [Fe2S2] cluster to the heme. This new structural model of a CYP-Fdx complex provides the basis for tailoring CYP enzymes for which the cognate ferredoxin is not known, to accept electrons from HaPux and display monooxygenase activity.