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A Novel Parkinson’s Disease Drug Candidate with Potent Anti-neuroinflammatory Effects through the Src Signaling Pathway

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posted on 12.09.2016, 00:00 by Ya-Dan Wang, Xiu-Qi Bao, Song Xu, Wen-Wen Yu, Sheng-Nan Cao, Jin-Ping Hu, Yan Li, Xiao-Liang Wang, Dan Zhang, Shi-Shan Yu
Numerous drug treatments are available for Parkinson’s disease (PD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease, but most cause serious side effects. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies that halt disease progression and allow for long-term administration are urgently needed. Neuroinflammation critically contributes to the pathogenesis of PD. Here, we report the discovery and optimization of phloroglucinol derivatives, a novel class of anti-neuroinflammatory compounds. Structural modifications of the hit compound 3-methyl-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)­butan-1-one produced 43 derivatives, including a preclinical candidate (compound 21), that exhibited potent in vitro anti-neuroinflammatory effects, good blood–brain barrier penetration, and desirable safety margins in mice at a median lethal dose (LD50) >5000 mg/kg. Its in vivo efficacy was demonstrated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- and MPTP/probenecid (prob)-induced subacute and chronic PD models, respectively, and α-synuclein transgenic mice. Mechanistic studies revealed neuroinflammation inhibition by targeting Src/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)/Akt signaling might be promising. We highlighted the potential usefulness of phloroglucinol derivatives in PD treatment.