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ATP Acyl Phosphate Reactivity Reveals Native Conformations of Hsp90 Paralogs and Inhibitor Target Engagement

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posted on 19.05.2015, 00:00 by Brian E. Nordin, Yongsheng Liu, Arwin Aban, Heidi E. Brown, Jiangyue Wu, Anna K. Hainley, Jonathan S. Rosenblum, Tyzoon K. Nomanbhoy, John W. Kozarich
Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent chaperone of widespread interest as a drug target. Here, using an LC-MS/MS chemoproteomics platform based on a lysine-reactive ATP acyl phosphate probe, several Hsp90 inhibitors were profiled in native cell lysates. Inhibitor specificities for all four human paralogs of Hsp90 were simultaneously monitored at their endogenous relative abundances. Equipotent inhibition of probe labeling in each paralog occurred at sites both proximal to and distal from bound ATP observed in Hsp90 cocrystal structures, suggesting that the ATP probe is assaying a native conformation not predicted by available structures. Inhibitor profiling against a comprehensive panel of protein kinases and other ATP-binding proteins detected in native cell lysates identified PMS2, a member of the GHKL ATPase superfamily as an off-target of NVP-AUY922 and radicicol. Because of the endogenously high levels of Hsp90 paralogs in typical cell lysates, the measured potency of inhibitors was weaker than published IC50 values. Significant inhibition of Hsp90 required inhibitor concentrations above a threshold where off-target activity was detectable. Direct on- and off-target engagement was measured by profiling lysates derived from cells treated with Hsp90 inhibitors. These studies also assessed the downstream cellular pathway effects of Hsp90 inhibition, including the down regulation of several known Hsp90 client proteins and some previously unknown client proteins. Overall, the ATP probe-based assay methodology enabled a broad characterization of Hsp90 inhibitor activity and specificity in native cell lysates.