[18O]-Oxygen Incorporation Reveals Novel Pathways in Spiroacetal Biosynthesis by Bactrocera cacuminata and B. cucumis

The origins of the oxygen atoms in 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane (1) and hydroxyspiroacetal (2) from Bactrocera cacuminata, and in 2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane (3) and hydroxyspiroacetal (4) from B. cucumis, have been investigated by incorporation studies from both [18O2]-dioxygen and [18O]-water. Combined GC-MS examination and high-field NMR analysis have demonstrated that all oxygen atoms in 1 and 2 from B. cacuminata are dioxygen derived, but in contrast, the spiroacetals 3 and 4 from B. cucumis incorporate one ring oxygen from water and one ring oxygen (and the hydroxyl oxygen in 4) from [18O2]-dioxygen. These results reveal not only the generality of monoxygenase mediation of spiroacetal formation in Bactrocera sp., but also an unexpected complexity in their biosynthesis. A general paradigm accommodating these and other observations is presented.