WO3 Nanoparticle-Based Conformable pH Sensor

pH is a vital physiological parameter that can be used for disease diagnosis and treatment as well as in monitoring other biological processes. Metal/metal oxide based pH sensors have several advantages regarding their reliability, miniaturization, and cost-effectiveness, which are critical characteristics for in vivo applications. In this work, WO3 nanoparticles were electrodeposited on flexible substrates over metal electrodes with a sensing area of 1 mm2. These sensors show a sensitivity of −56.7 ± 1.3 mV/pH, in a wide pH range of 9 to 5. A proof of concept is also demonstrated using a flexible reference electrode in solid electrolyte with a curved surface. A good balance between the performance parameters (sensitivity), the production costs, and simplicity of the sensors was accomplished, as required for wearable biomedical devices.