Uptake of Contaminants of Emerging Concern by the Bivalves Anodonta californiensis and Corbicula fluminea

Uptake of seven contaminants regularly detected in surface waters and spanning a range of hydrophobicities (log Dow −1 to 5) was studied for two species of freshwater bivalves, the native mussel Anodonta californiensis and the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea. Batch systems were utilized to determine compound partitioning, and flow-through systems, comparable to environmental conditions in effluent dominated surface waters, were used to determine uptake and depuration kinetics. Uptake of compounds was independent of bivalve type. Log bioconcentration factor (BCF) values were correlated with log Dow for nonionized compounds with the highest BCF value obtained for triclocarban (TCC). TCC concentrations were reduced in the water column due to bivalve activity. Anionic compounds with low Dow values, i.e., clofibric acid and ibuprofen, were not removed from water, while the organic cation propranolol showed biouptake similar to that of TCC. Batch experiments supported compound uptake patterns observed in flow-through experiments. Contaminant removal from water was observed through accumulation in tissue or settling as excreted pseudofeces or feces. The outcomes of this study indicate the potential utility of bivalve augmentation to improve water quality by removing hydrophobic trace organic compounds found in natural systems.