Ultrasensitive Room-Temperature Operable Gas Sensors Using p‑Type Na:ZnO Nanoflowers for Diabetes Detection

Ultrasensitive room-temperature operable gas sensors utilizing the photocatalytic activity of Na-doped p-type ZnO (Na:ZnO) nanoflowers (NFs) are demonstrated as a promising candidate for diabetes detection. The flowerlike Na:ZnO nanoparticles possessing ultrathin hierarchical nanosheets were synthesized by a facile solution route at a low processing temperature of 40 °C. It was found that the Na element acting as a p-type dopant was successfully incorporated in the ZnO lattice. On the basis of the synthesized p-type Na:ZnO NFs, room-temperature operable chemiresistive-type gas sensors were realized, activated by ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The Na:ZnO NF gas sensors exhibited high gas response (S of 3.35) and fast response time (∼18 s) and recovery time (∼63 s) to acetone gas (100 ppm, UV intensity of 5 mW cm–2), and furthermore, subppm level (0.2 ppm) detection was achieved at room temperature, which enables the diagnosis of various diseases including diabetes from exhaled breath.