Toward Fully Synthetic Glycoproteins by Ultimately Convergent Routes:  A Solution to a Long-Standing Problem

A method is disclosed for the convergent synthesis of multiply glycosylated peptides. The approach centers on a convergent technique for generating masked, complex glycopeptide-containing C-terminal acyl donors. Activation of the latent donor in situ and use directly in segment coupling with a second peptide bearing a complex carbohydrate produces a completely unprotected, bifunctional glycopeptide. The system demonstrates a minimum level of hydrolysis and epimerization at the C-terminal amino acid residue of the acyl donor during fully convergent segment coupling and is therefore a powerful tool for the synthesis of glycoproteins.