Torsional Mechanics of DNA Are Regulated by Small-Molecule Intercalation

2010-12-23T00:00:00Z (GMT) by Alfredo Celedon Denis Wirtz Sean Sun
Whether the bend and twist mechanics of DNA molecules are coupled is unclear. Here, we report the direct measurement of the resistive torque of single DNA molecules to study the effect of ethidium bromide (EtBr) intercalation and pulling force on DNA twist mechanics. DNA molecules were overwound and unwound using recently developed magnetic tweezers where the molecular resistive torque was obtained from Brownian angular fluctuations. The effect of EtBr intercalation on the twist stiffness was found to be significantly different from the effect on the bend persistence length. The twist stiffness of DNA was dramatically reduced at low intercalator concentration (<10 nM); however, it did not decrease further when the intercalator concentration was increased by 3 orders of magnitude. We also determined the dependence of EtBr intercalation on the torque applied to DNA. We propose a model for the elasticity of DNA base pairs with intercalated EtBr molecules to explain the abrupt decrease of twist stiffness at low EtBr concentration. These results indicate that the bend and twist stiffnesses of DNA are independent and can be differently affected by small-molecule binding.