The Reactivity of Epoxides with Lithium 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidide in Combination with Organolithiums or Grignard Reagents

The scope and limitations of lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (LTMP)-modified reductive alkylation of epoxides is detailed. A variety of organolithiums are added to terminal and 2,2-disubstituted epoxides in the presence of LTMP to generate alkenes in a completely regio- and highly stereoselective manner. Arylated alkenes, dienes, allylsilanes, and enynes are accessed using this procedure. The methodology is applied in the synthesis of the roller leaf moth pheromone, (3E,5Z)-dodecadienyl acetate. The corresponding reaction without LTMP has also been examined, and a study using deuterated epoxides provides insight into the mechanism. In the presence of LTMP, Grignard reagents are also shown to produce E-alkenes directly from epoxides.