Synthesis and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Properties of A‑Type Procyanidin Analogues against Resistant Bacteria in Food

Natural A-type procyanidins have shown very interesting biological activities, such as their proven antiadherence properties against pathogenic bacteria. In order to find the structural features responsible for their activities, we describe herein the design and synthesis of six A-type procyanidin analogues and the evaluation of their antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties against 12 resistant bacteria, both Gram positive and Gram negative, isolated from organic foods. The natural A-type procyanidin A-2, which had known antiadherence activity, was also tested as a reference compound for the comparative studies. Within the series, analogue 4, which had a NO2 group on ring A, showed the highest antimicrobial activity (MIC of 10 μg/mL) and was one of the best molecules at preventing biofilm formation (up to 40% decreases at 100 μg/mL) and disrupting preformed biofilms (up to 40% reductions at 0.1 μg/mL). Structure–activity relationships are also analyzed.