Surfaces with Dual Functionality through Specific Coimmobilization of Self-Assembled Polymeric Nanostructures

Coimmobilization of functional, nanosized assemblies broadens the possibility to engineer dually functionalized active surfaces with a nanostructured texture. Surfaces decorated with different nanoassemblies, such as micelles, polymersomes, or nanoparticles are in high demand for various applications ranging from catalysis, biosensing up to antimicrobial surfaces. Here, we present a combination of bio-orthogonal and catalyst-free strain-promoted azide–alkyne click (SPAAC) and thiol–ene reactions to simultaneously coimmobilize various nanoassemblies; we selected polymersome–polymersome and polymersome–micelle assemblies. For the first time, the immobilization method using SPAAC reaction was studied in detail to attach soft, polymeric assemblies on a solid support. Together, the SPAAC and thiol–ene reactions successfully coimmobilized two unique self-assembled structures on the surfaces. Additionally, poly­(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based polymersomes were used as “ink” for direct immobilization from a PDMS-based microstamp onto a surface creating locally defined patterns. Combining immobilization reactions has the advantage to attach any kind of nanoassembly pairs, resulting in surfaces with “desired” interfacial properties. Different nanoassemblies that encapsulate multiple active compounds coimmobilized on a surface will pave the way for the development of multifunctional surfaces with controlled properties and efficiency.