Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis for Verifying the Authenticity of Balsamic and Wine Vinegar

In this paper, we investigate whether the analysis of stable isotope ratios D/H and 13C/12C in ethanol and acetic acid and of 18O/16O in water can be applied to the ingredients of “aceto balsamico di Modena IGP” (ABM) to evaluate their authenticity. We found that impurities in the extraction solution do not affect the 13C/12C of acetic acid and the D/H values of acetic acid are not affected under a composite NMR experiment. The standard deviation of repeatability and standard deviation of reproducibility are comparable in wine vinegar and ABM and generally lower than those quoted in the official methods. This means that the validation parameters quoted in the official methods can also be applied to the ingredients of ABM. In addition, we found no changes in the isotopic values from wine to vinegar and to ABM, and from the original must to the ABM must, providing experimental evidence that reference data from wine databanks can also be used to evaluate the authenticity of vinegar and ABM.