Spiral Layer-by-Layer Micro-Nanostructured Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

This Article reports the fabrication and characterization of composite micro-nanostructured spiral scaffolds functionalized with nanofibers and hydroxyapatite (HA) for bone regeneration. The spiral poly­(lactic acid-<i>co</i>-glycolic acid) (PLGA) porous microstructure was coated with sparsely spaced PLGA nanofibers and HA to enhance surface area and bioactivity. Polyelectrolyte-based HA coating in a layer-by-layer (LBL) fashion allowed 10–70 μM Ca<sup>2+</sup>/mm<sup>2</sup> incorporation. These scaffolds provided a controlled release of Ca<sup>2+</sup> ions up to 60 days with varied release kinetics accounting up to 10–50 μg. Spiral scaffolds supported superior adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) as compared to controls microstructures. Spiral micro-nanostructures supported homogeneous tissue ingrowth and resulted in bone-island formation in the center of the scaffold as early as 3 weeks in a rabbit ulnar bone defect model. In contrast, control cylindrical scaffolds showed tissue ingrowth only at the surface because of limitations in scaffold transport features.