Rhodomollanol A, a Highly Oxygenated Diterpenoid with a 5/7/5/5 Tetracyclic Carbon Skeleton from the Leaves of Rhododendron molle

A novel diterpenoid with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, rhodomollanol A (1), and a new grayanane diterpenoid, rhodomollein XXXI (2), were isolated from the leaves of Rhododendron molle. Their structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses a unique cis/trans/trans/cis/cis-fused 3/5/7/5/5/5 hexacyclic ring system featuring a rare 7-oxabicyclo[4.2.1]­nonane core decorated with three cyclopentane units. The plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed. Compound 1 exhibited moderate PTP1B inhibitory activity.