Rhodium-Catalyzed Direct Oxidative Carbonylation of Aromatic C−H Bond with CO and Alcohols

A general protocol for the rhodium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of arenes to form esters has been developed. A broad substrate scope has been demonstrated allowing carbonylation of electron-rich, electron-poor, and heterocyclic arenes, and the reaction shows wide functional group tolerance and excellent regioselectivities. Up to 96% yield of ortho-substituted aryl or heteroaryl carboxylic esters were obtained with this methodology. The possible mechanism for the rhodium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reaction was proposed in this article. Studies show that Oxone play an important role in the transformation.