Reduction of Peptide Character of HIV Protease Inhibitors That Exhibit Nanomolar Potency against Multidrug Resistant HIV-1 Strains

Novel HIV protease inhibitors containing a hydroxyethylamine dipeptide isostere as a transition state-mimic king structure were synthesized by combining substructures of known HIV protease inhibitors. Among them, TYA5 and TYB5 were proven to be not only potent enzyme inhibitors (Ki = 0.12 nM and 0.10 nM, respectively) but also strong anti-HIV agents (IC50 = 9.5 nM and 66 nM, respectively), even against viral strains with multidrug resistance. Furthermore, insertion of an (E)-alkene dipeptide isostere at the P1−P2 position of TYB5 led to development of a purely nonpeptidic protease inhibitor, TYB1 (Ki = 0.38 nM, IC50 = 160 nM).