Reducing Allergenicity to Arginine Kinase from Mud Crab Using Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Peptide Aptamers

The mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is widely consumed but can cause a severe food allergic reaction. To reduce allergenicity to arginine kinase (AK), site-directed mutagenesis was used to destroy disulfide bonds or mutate critical amino acids of conformational epitopes. Three hypoallergenic mutant AKs (mAK1, mAK2, and mAK3) were generated, with the immunoreactivity decreasing by 54.2, 40.1, and 71.4%, respectively. In comparison to recombinant AK (rAK), the structure of mAKs was clearly changed. Additionally, antisense peptides were designed on the basis of linear epitopes and pepsin-cutting sites of AK. Five peptide aptamers were screened by molecular docking and then analyzed by the immunoglobulin E inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and human Laboratory of Allergic Diseases 2 mast cell degranulation assay. The peptide aptamers could significantly inhibit allergenicity of rAK and mAKs, and the inhibitory effect of peptide aptamer 3 was slightly better than the others. These results provide synergistic methods to reduce allergenicity to AK, which could be applied to other shellfish allergens.