Photoluminescent Lateral-Flow Immunoassay Revealed by Graphene Oxide: Highly Sensitive Paper-Based Pathogen Detection

A paper-based lateral flow immunoassay for pathogen detection that avoids the use of secondary antibodies and is revealed by the photoluminescence quenching ability of graphene oxide is reported. Escherichia coli has been selected as a model pathogen. The proposed device is able to display a highly specific and sensitive performance with a limit of detection of 10 CFU mL–1 in standard buffer and 100 CFU mL–1 in bottled water and milk. This low-cost disposable and easy-to-use device will prove valuable for portable and automated diagnostics applications.