On the Solid State Structure of 4-Iodobenzoic Acid

The solid-state structure of 4-iodobenzoic acid has been confirmed by variable temperature X-ray diffraction, variable temperature solid-state NMR and differential scanning calorimetry. 4-iodobenzoic acid crystallizes in the space group <i>P</i>2<sub>1</sub>/<i>n</i>, and dimerizes in the solid state about a center of inversion. Using extensive X-ray crystallographic data collections, the placement of the carboxylate H atoms from the residual electron density in difference Fourier maps was determined. The position of the electron density associated with the proton is found to vary with temperature in that the population of the disordered sites changes with varying temperature. Determination of the crystal structure between the temperatures of 248 and 198 K was not possible due to a phase transition, an endothermic event occurring at 230.77 K. The phase transition is also indicated by a change in the relaxation time of the ring carbon atoms in the solid-state NMR data. Though the dominating force in the dimeric unit in the solid state is the presence of strong hydrogen bonds, there are also van der Waals forces present between the iodine atoms. In the layered structure, the iodine−iodine distance is within the van der Waals contact radii, an interaction which causes a deformation in the electron density of the iodine atoms.