Novel Synthetic Approach to Charge-Compensated Phosphonio-nido-Carboranes. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Neutral Mono and Bis(Phosphonio) nido-ortho-Carboranes

A number of monosubstituted n-(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaboranes (2a, n = 1; 2b, n = 3; 2c, n = 5; 2d, n = 9) were prepared via a cross-coupling reaction between the tetrabutylammonium iodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborates (1ad) and PPh3 in the presence of a Pd­(PPh3)4 catalyst. The substitution rate was found to depend on the iodine position in the carborane cage. Under similar conditions, the reaction of 5,6-diiodo- (3) and 9,11-diiodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate (5) anions exclusively yielded the monosubstitution products 5-iodo-6-(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborane (4) and 9-iodo-11-(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborane (6), respectively. The reaction of tetrabutylammonium 6,9-diiodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate (7) exclusively produced the phosphine substitution product in the open face of the nido-carborane, 6-iodo-9-triphenylphosphonio-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborane (8). The addition of a base (Cs2CO3, NaH) to the reactions of 3 and 5 with PPh3 afforded the corresponding bis­(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaboranes, 9 and 10. Compound 10 was also prepared from 6 using the general procedure. The reaction of the triiodocarborane tetrabutylammonium 5,6,9-triiodo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate (11) with excess PPh3 in the presence of Cs2CO3 and Pd­(PPh3)4 only produced neutral 5-iodo-6,9-bis­(triphenylphosphonio)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborane (12); no positively charged tris­(phosphonio) species formed. The compositions of all prepared compounds were determined by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structures of compounds 2c, 6, 8, 9, and 12 were established by the X-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals.