Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Surface Modification by Electrostatic, Covalent, and Immune Complexation Binding Investigated by Capillary Filling

The fluid imbibition-coupled laser interferometry (FICLI) technique has been applied to detect and quantify surface changes and pore dimension variations in nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) structures. FICLI is a noninvasive optical technique that permits the determination of the NAA average pore radius with high accuracy. In this work, the technique is applied after each step of different surface modification paths of the NAA pores: (i) electrostatic immobilization of bovine serum albumin (BSA), (ii) covalent attachment of streptavidin via (3-aminipropyl)-triethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde grafting, and (iii) immune complexation. Results show that BSA attachment can be detected as a reduction in estimated radius from FICLI with high accuracy and reproducibility. In the case of the covalent attachment of streptavidin, FICLI is able to recognize a multilayer formation of the silane and the protein. For immune complexation, the technique is able to detect different antibody–antigen bindings and distinguish different dynamics among different immune species.