Modulating Charge Density Wave Order in a 1T-TaS<sub>2</sub>/Black Phosphorus Heterostructure

Controllability of collective electron states has been a long-sought scientific and technological goal and promises development of new devices. Herein, we investigate the tuning of charge density wave (CDW) in 1T-TaS<sub>2</sub> via a two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructure of 1T-TaS<sub>2</sub>/BP. Unusual gate-dependent conductance oscillations were observed in 1T-TaS<sub>2</sub> nanoflake supported on BP in transport measurements. Scanning tunneling microscopy study shows that the nearly commensurate (NC) CDW phase survived to 4.5 K in this system, which is substantially lower than the NC to commensurate CDW phase transition temperature of 180 K. A Coulomb blockade model was invoked to explain the conductance oscillations, where the domain walls and domains in NC phase serve as series of quantum dot arrays and tunnelling barriers, respectively. Density functional theory calculations show that a range of interfacial interactions, including strain and charge transfer, influences the CDW stabilities. Our work sheds light on tuning CDW orders via 2D heterostructure stacking and provides new insights on the CDW phase transition and sliding mechanism.