Low-Cost Passive Sampling Device with Integrated Porous Membrane Produced Using Multimaterial 3D Printing

Multimaterial 3D printing facilitates the rapid production of complex devices with integrated materials of varying properties and functionality. Herein, multimaterial fused deposition modeling (MM-FDM) 3D printing was applied to the fabrication of low-cost passive sampler devices with integrated porous membranes. Using MM-FDM 3D printing, the device body was produced using black polylactic acid, with Poro-Lay Lay-Felt filament used for the printing of the integrated porous membranes (rubber-elastomeric polymer, porous after removal of a water-soluble poly­(vinyl alcohol) component). The resulting device consisted of two interlocking circular frames, each containing the integrated membrane, which could be efficiently sealed together without the need for additional O-rings, and prevented loss of enclosed microparticulate sorbent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the purified composite filament confirmed the porous properties of the material, an average pore size of ∼30 nm. The printed passive samplers with various membrane thicknesses, including 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm, were evaluated for their ability to facilitate the extraction of atrazine as the model solute onto the internal sorbent, under standard conditions. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to determine the uptake of atrazine by the device from standard water samples and also to evaluate any chemical leaching from the printed materials. The sampler with 0.5 mm thick membrane showed the best performance with 87% depletion and a sampling rate of 0.19 Ld–1 (n = 3, % RSD = 0.59). The results obtained using these printed sampling devices with integrated membranes were in close agreement to devices fitted with a standard poly­(ether sulfone) membrane.