Inkjet-Printed Triple Cation Perovskite Solar Cells

Noncontact inkjet printing offers rapid and digital deposition combined with excellent control over the layer formation for printed perovskite solar cells. In this work, inkjet printing is used to deposit triple cation perovskite layers with 10% cesium in a mixed formamidinium/methylammonium lead iodide/bromide composite for solar cells with high temperature and moisture stability. A reliable process control over a wide range of perovskite layer thickness from 175 to 780 nm and corresponding grain sizes is achieved by adjusting the drop spacing of the inkjet printer cartridge. A continuous power output at constant voltage, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of 12.9%, is demonstrated, representing a major improvement from previously reported inkjet-printed methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite solar cells. Moreover, this work highlights the extended resistance of triple cation perovskite solar cells against heat and moisture for our ambient inkjet printing approach. The presented results are a proof of concept for the processability of high efficiency perovskite solar cells using digital inkjet printing for next generation photovoltaic applications.