ITRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of the Metabolic Mechanisms Behind Lipid Accumulation and Degradation during Peanut Seed Development and Postgermination

Peanut seeds have a high oil content making them an important oil crop. During development and germination, seeds undergo complex dynamic and physiological changes. Changes in lipid metabolism and underlying mechanisms during seed development have been studied extensively by DNA and RNA sequencing; however, there are few studies on dynamic changes of proteomics during peanut seed development and germination. In this study, proteomic analyses were carried out 20, 40, 60, and 80 days after pollination and 5, 10, 20, and 30 days after germination using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology to determine the protein profiles of lipid dynamics during peanut seed development and postgermination. A total of 5712 of 8505 proteins were identified, quantified, and divided into 23 functional groups, the largest of which was metabolism-related. Further analyses of the proteins and their pathways revealed initiation of fatty acid accumulation at early stages after flowering, while lipid degradation occurred largely through the lipoxygenase-dependent pathway. Protein expression patterns related to lipid accumulation and degradation were also verified at transcript levels using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The proteome profiles determined here will significantly enrich our understanding of the process of lipid accumulation and degradation and the dynamic changes in metabolic networks during peanut development.