Gypenosides Reduced the Risk of Overweight and Insulin Resistance in C57BL/6J Mice through Modulating Adipose Thermogenesis and Gut Microbiota

This study investigated whether and how gypenosides from jiaogulan tea at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day levels could reduce the development of overweight and insulin resistance in C57 BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet in 12 weeks. The 300 mg/kg/day gypenosides supplement significantly reduced final body weight, plasma total cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index by 19.9%, 40%, and 36%, respectively, compared with the high-fat diet control group. Gypenosides also increased brown adipocyte tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning. The expression of genes involved in mitochondrial activity and fatty acid β-oxidation were also increased in both brown and white adipocyte tissues. In addition, gypenosides at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day levels decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes by 20% and 58.6%, respectively, and increased Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in the gut microbiota.