Folding Analytical Devices for Electrochemical ELISA in Hydrophobic RH Paper

This work describes a device for electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed for low-resource settings and diagnostics at the point of care. The device is fabricated entirely in hydrophobic paper, produced by silanization of paper with decyl trichlorosilane, and comprises two zones separated by a central crease: an embossed microwell, on the surface of which the antigen or antibody immobilization and recognition events occur, and a detection zone where the electrodes are printed. The two zones are brought in contact by folding the device along this central crease; the analytical signal is recorded from the folded configuration. Two proof-of-concept applications, an electrochemical direct ELISA for the detection of rabbit IgG as a model antigen in buffer and an electrochemical sandwich ELISA for the detection of malarial histidine-rich protein from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf HRP2) in spiked human serum, show the versatility of this device. The limit of detection of the electrochemical sandwich ELISA for the quantification of Pf HRP2 in spiked human serum was 4 ng mL–1 (102 pmol L–1), a value within the range of clinically relevant concentrations.