Flexible Nanoporous WO3–x Nonvolatile Memory Device

Flexible resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices have attracted great interest for future nonvolatile memories. However, making active layer films at high temperature can be a hindrance to RRAM device fabrication on flexible substrates. Here, we introduced a flexible nanoporous (NP) WO3–x RRAM device using anodic treatment in a room-temperature process. The flexible NP WO3–x RRAM device showed bipolar switching characteristics and a high ION/IOFF ratio of ∼105. The device also showed stable retention time over 5 × 105 s, outstanding cell-to-cell uniformity, and bending endurance over 103 cycles when measured in both the flat and the maximum bending conditions.