Facilitation of Water Penetration through Zero-Dimensional Gates on Rolled-up Graphene by Cluster–Chain–Cluster Transformations

We demonstrate a water penetration mechanism through zero-dimensional nanogates of a single-walled carbon nanohorn. Water vapor adsorption via the nanogates is delayed in the initial adsorption stage but then proceeds at a certain rate. The mechanism is proposed to be a water cluster–chain–cluster transformation via the nanogates. The growth of water clusters in internal nanospaces facilitates water penetration into these nanospaces, providing an intrinsic mechanism for zero-dimensional water.