Exploring the Arctic Charr Intestinal Glycome: Evidence of Increased N‑Glycolylneuraminic Acid Levels and Changed Host–Pathogen Interactions in Response to Inflammation

Disease outbreaks are a limiting factor for the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry. The intestinal tract is covered by a mucus layer mainly comprised by highly glycosylated proteins called mucins. Mucins regulate pathogen adhesion, growth, and virulence, and the glycans are vital for these functions. We analyzed intestinal mucin O-glycans on mucins from control and full-fat extruded soy-bean-fed (known to cause enteritis) Arctic charr using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 56 glycans were identified on Arctic charr intestinal mucins, with a high prevalence of core-5-type and sialylated O-glycans. Disialic-acid-epitope-containing structures including NeuAcα2,8NeuAc, NeuAc­(Gc)­α2,8NeuGc­(Ac), and NeuGcα2,8NeuGc were the hallmark of Arctic charr intestinal mucin glycosylation. Arctic charr fed with soy bean meal diet had lower (i) number of structures detected, (ii) interindividual variation, and (iii) N-glycolylneuraminic-acid-containing glycans compared with control Arctic charr. Furthermore, Aeromonas salmonicida grew less in response to mucins from inflamed Arctic charr than from the control group. The Arctic charr glycan repertoire differed from that of Atlantic salmon. In conclusion, the loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid may be a biomarker for inflammation in Arctic char, and inflammation-induced glycosylation changes affect host–pathogen interactions.