Enhancing Mucosal Immune Response of Newcastle Disease Virus DNA Vaccine Using N‑2-Hydroxypropyl Trimethylammonium Chloride Chitosan and N,O‑Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles as Delivery Carrier

Because mucosal sites are the entry ports of pathogens, immunization via mucosal routes can extremely enhance the immunity. To elevate the potential of N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride chitosan (N-2-HACC) and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) nanoparticles as a mucosal immune delivery carrier for DNA vaccines, we prepared the NDV F gene plasmid DNA with C3d6 molecular adjuvant (pVAX I-F­(o)-C3d6) encapsulated in the N-2-HACC-CMC nanoparticles (N-2-HACC-CMC/pFDNA-C3d6 NPs). The N-2-HACC-CMC/pFDNA-C3d6 NPs had regular spherical morphology and low toxicity with a mean diameter of 309.7 ± 6.52 nm, zeta potential of 49.9 ± 4.93 mV, encapsulation efficiency of 92.27 ± 1.48%, and loading capacity of 50.75 ± 1.35%. The N-2-HACC-CMC had high stability and safety. The pVAX I-F­(o)-C3d6 could be sustainably released from the N-2-HACC-CMC/pFDNA-C3d6 NPs after an initial burst release. Immunization intranasally of chickens with N-2-HACC-CMC/pFDNA-C3d6 NPs not only produced higher anti-NDV IgG and sIgA antibody than chickens in other groups did, but also significantly stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and triggered higher the IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels. These findings indicated that the N-2-HACC-CMC could be used as an efficient delivery carrier for the mucosal immunity of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine. The work laid a basis for the quaternized chitosan nanoparticles as efficient mucosal immunity delivery carrier for DNA vaccines and had immense application promise and potential for vaccines and drugs.