Double Hydrophilic Janus Cylinders at an Air–Water Interface

Colloidal particles spontaneously attach to the interface between two immiscible fluids to minimize the interfacial area between the two phases. The shape and wettability of particles have a strong influence on their configuration and interactions at fluid–fluid interfaces. In this study, we investigate the behavior of asymmetrically hydrophilic Janus cylinders (or double hydrophilic Janus cylinders with two different hydrophilic regions) trapped at an air–water interface. We find that these double hydrophilic Janus cylinders with aspect ratios of 0.9, 1.2, and 2.4 adopt both end-on and tilted configurations with respect to the interface. Our numerical calculations show that the coexistence of these configurations is a result of multiple energy minima present in the attachment energy profile that can be represented as a complex energy landscape. Double hydrophilic Janus cylinders with tilted orientations induce hexapolar interface deformation, which accounts for the pair interactions between the particles as well as the nondeterministic assembly behaviors of these particles at the interface.