Direct Observation of Oxidation Reaction via Closed Bipolar Electrode-Anodic Electrochemiluminescence Protocol: Structural Property and Sensing Applications

In this work, we developed an innovative closed bipolar electrode (BPE)-electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing strategy with generality for target detection. Based on charge balance and 100% current efficiency between the closed BPE poles and the driving electrodes, one of the driving electrodes in one cell of the closed BPE system was employed as ECL sensing surface to reflect the target on the BPE pole in the opposite cell. Compared with traditional BPE-ECL sensing method, which in general adopted the anodic ECL reagents such as Ru­(bpy)32+ and its coreactant on one pole (anode) to reflect the target (occurring reduction reaction) on the other pole (cathode), the difference was that the targets occurring oxidation reaction could be detected by the anodic ECL reagents based on this strategy. To verify the feasibility of this strategy, the detection principle was stated first, and Fe­(CN)64– as model target at anodic BPE pole were detected by anodic ECL reagents (Ru­(bpy)32+ and TprA) on the driving electrode first. The ECL signals showed good performance for target detection. By changing the size and the material of the BPE pole where the targets were located, the detection of l-ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and dopamine (DA) as other model targets with higher detection limit were accomplished. Visual and high-throughput detection of AA, UA, and DA were also successfully realized by an array of the closed BPE system. This closed BPE (array) system is an effective supplement of traditional BPE-ECL sensing and could greatly expand the scope of the detection target.