Direct Observation of Indium Conductive Filaments in Transparent, Flexible, and Transferable Resistive Switching Memory

Electronics with multifunctionalities such as transparency, portability, and flexibility are anticipated for future circuitry development. Flexible memory is one of the indispensable elements in a hybrid electronic integrated circuit as the information storage device. Herein, we demonstrate a transparent, flexible, and transferable hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)-based resistive switching memory with indium tin oxide (ITO) and graphene electrodes on soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The ITO/hBN/graphene/PDMS memory device not only exhibits excellent performance in terms of optical transmittance (∼85% in the visible wavelength), ON/OFF ratio (∼480), retention time (∼5 × 10<sup>4</sup> s) but also shows robust flexibility under bending conditions and stable operation on arbitrary substrates. More importantly, direct observation of indium filaments in an ITO/hBN/graphene device is found <i>via ex situ</i> transmission electron microscopy, which provides critical insight on the complex resistive switching mechanisms.