Deoxynivalenol Oligoglycosides: New “Masked” Fusarium Toxins Occurring in Malt, Beer, and Breadstuff

The co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside with its parent toxin, deoxynivalenol, has been recently documented in many cereal-based foods, especially in those produced by enzyme-catalyzed processes. The presence of this masked mycotoxin in the human diet has become an issue of health concern, mainly because of its assumed bioavailability. A selective immunoaffinity-based preconcentration strategy, followed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry, revealed that, in addition to the most common deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, also oligoglycosylated deoxynivalenols with up to four bound hexose units were present in cereal-based products. The structure, origination, and fate of these deoxynivalenol conjugates during malt/beer production and bread baking have been thoroughly investigated. Special attention has been paid to the changes of deoxynivalenol conjugates enabled by industrial glycosidase-based enzymatic preparations. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first study documenting the complexity of masked deoxynivalenol issue.