Coordination Abilities of 4,5-Dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolate Anion toward Sodium Cation: Structural and Spectroscopic Studies of Solid and Liquid Glyme-Solvated Electrolyte Systems

Comprehensive structural analysis of sodium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)­imidazolate (NaTDI) solvates with glymes (1–4), tetrahydrofuran, and crown ethers has been performed. Several structural motifs obtained from single-crystal X-ray analysis of complementary series of crystalline adducts with varying O:Na ratios were correlated with spectroscopic and thermal data to provide new information about the coordination ability of heterocyclic anions toward sodium cations. Presented results provide a basis for developing models of poly­(ethylene oxide) electrolytes and liquid systems for sodium ion battery electrolytes. We have found a wide variety of anion–cation coordination types which allow us to compare them with analogous lithium solvates in terms of Brown’s valence-matching principle and Lewis acid strength (Sa) parameters. Noticed aggregation modes of sodium salts confirm the occurrence of a solvate disproportionation conductivity mechanism at high salt concentrations which can be used for developing new heterocyclic salt systems for sodium batteries.