Coagulation of Iodide-Containing Resorcinol Solution or Natural Waters with Ferric Chloride Can Produce Iodinated Coagulation Byproducts

Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) are of particular concern in drinking water due to the more cytotoxic and genotoxic properties than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Formation of I-DBP primarily results from the oxidation of iodide-containing waters with various oxidants and the chlor­(am)­ination of iodinated organic compounds in drinking water. This study first reports that ferric chloride (FeCl3) can lead to the formation of iodinated coagulation byproducts (I-CBPs) from iodide-containing resorcinol solution or natural waters. The unwanted I-CBP formation involved the oxidation of iodide by ferric ions to generate various reactive iodine species, which further oxidize organic compounds. Although the oxidation rate of iodide by FeCl3 was several orders of magnitude slower than that by chlorine or chloramine, most of the converted iodide under the ferric/iodide system was transformed into iodine and iodinated organic compounds rather than iodate. Formation of four aliphatic I-CBPs was observed, and four aromatic I-CBPs were identified by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry and theoretical calculation. Coagulation of iodide-containing waters with FeCl3 also produced I-CBPs ranging from 12.5 ± 0.8 to 32.5 ± 0.2 μg/L as I. These findings call for careful consideration of the formation of I-CBPs from coagulation of iodide-containing waters with ferric salts.