Chimeric Aptamers-Based and MoS2 Nanosheet-Enhanced Label-Free Fluorescence Polarization Strategy for Adenosine Triphosphate Detection

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a primary energy source plays a unique role in the regulation of all cellular events. The necessity to detect ATP requires sensitive and accurate quantitative analytical strategies. Herein, we present our study of developing a MoS2 nanosheet-enhanced aptasensor for fluorescence polarization-based ATP detection. A bifunctional DNA strand was designed to consist of chimeric aptamers that recognize and capture ATP and berberine, a fluorescence enhancer. In the absence of ATP, the DNA strand bound to berberine will be hydrolyzed when Exonuclease I (Exo I) is introduced, releasing berberine as a result. In contrast, when ATP is present, ATP aptamer folds into a G-quadruplex structure; thus, the complex can resist degradation by Exo I to maintain berberine for fluorescent detection purpose. In addition, to magnify the fluorescence polarization (FP) signal, MoS2 nanosheets were also adopted in the system. This nanosheets-enhanced FP strategy is simple and facile which does not require traditional dye-labeled DNA strands and complex operation steps. The developed fluorescence polarization aptasensor showed high sensitivity for the quantification of ATP with a detection limit of 34.4 nM, performing well both in buffer solution and in biological samples.