Characterization of a Regulator pgsR on Endogenous Plasmid p2Sip and Its Complementation for Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Accumulation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S154 is a promising poly­(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) producing strain discovered in previous studies. However, the wild-type strain contains an unknown endogenous plasmid, p2Sip, which causes low transformation efficiency and instability of exogenous plasmids. In our study, p2Sip is 5622 bp with 41% G+C content and contains four putative open reading frames (ORFs), including genes repB, hsp, and mobB and γ-PGA-synthesis regulator, pgsR. Elimination of p2Sip from strain NX-2S154 delayed γ-PGA secretion and decreased production of γ-PGA by 18.1%. Integration of a pgsR expression element into the genomic BamHI locus using marker-free manipulation based on pheS* increased the γ-PGA titer by 8%. pgsR overexpression upregulated the expression of γ-PGA synthase pgsB, regulator degQ, and glutamic acid synthase gltA, thus increasing the γ-PGA production in B. amyloliquefaciens NB. Our results indicated that pgsR from p2Sip plays an important regulatory role in γ-PGA synthesis in B. amyloliquefaciens.